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Table 1 Comparison between control, DM without vascular complications, and DM with vascular complications groups regarding demographic and clinical data

From: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene polymorphism as a risk factor for vascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus

Parameters Control (n = 181) DM without VCs (n = 117) DM with VCs (n = 83) P value
Age (year)
 Median (IQR) 46 (11) 48 (10) 49 (11) 0.089 NS, 1
 Range (min–max) 34–59 37–61 38–66
Gender [n (%)]
 Male 137 (75.7) 84 (71.8) 61 (73.5) 0.750 NS, 2
 Female 44 (24.3) 33 (28.2) 22 (26.5)
Smoking [n (%)]
 No 148 (81.8) 88 (75.2) 59 (71.1) 0.123 NS, 2
 Yes 33 (18.2) 29 (24.8) 24 (28.9)
Dyslipidemia [n (%)]
 Absent 5 (4.3) 1 (1.2) 0.014 S, 2
 Present 112 (95.7) a, b 82 (98.8) b
Hypertension [n (%)]
 Absent 18 (15.4) 11 (13.3) 0.287 NS, 2
 Present 99 (84.6) 72 (86.7)
Duration of DM (year)
 Median (IQR) 3.6 (2.05) 3.8 (2.9) 0.539 NS, 3
 Range (min–max) 1.6–6.80 1.2–7.8
PAI-1
 Median (IQR) 32.0 (16.5)a 43.0 (19.5)b 59.0 (23.0) c < 0.001HS, 1
 Range (min–max) 16.0–48.0 20.0–66.0 22.0–77.0
TAFI
 Median (IQR) 6.5 (2.85) a 61.0 (38.5) b 89.0 (58.0) c < 0.001HS, 1
 Range (min–max) 1.1–10.4 22.0–112.0 34.0–164.0
d-dimer
 Median (IQR) 0.7 (0.5) a 1.5 (2.0) b 2.4 (1.9) c < 0.001HS, 1
 Range (min–max) 0.3–1.5 0.4–3.5 0.5–4.5
BMI (kg/m3)
 Median (IQR) 25.5 (2.65)a 28.3 (5.15) b 28.1 (5.1) b < 0.001HS, 1
 Range (min–max) 22.0–28.4 24.2–37.0 23.7–35.1
SBP (mmHg)
 Median (IQR) 120.0 (0.00) a 120.0 (35.0) b 142.0 (38.0) b < 0.001HS, 1
 Range (min–max) 110.0–130.0 110.0–168.0 110.0–170.0
DBP (mmHg)
 Median (IQR) 80.0 (0.00) a 88.0 (15.0) b 90.0 (15.0) b < 0.001HS, 1
 Range (min–max) 70.0–90.0 70.0–112.0 70.0–120.0
FBS (mg/dl)
 Median (IQR) 78.0 (8.0) a 125.0 (26.5) b 127.0 (40.0) b < 0.001HS, 1
 Range (min–max) 70.0–88.0 95.0–186.0 97.0–198.0
2Hr PBS (mg/dl)
 Median (IQR) 90.0 (16.0) a 142.0 (32.0) b 155.0 (50.0) b < 0.001HS, 1
 Range (min–max) 76.0–115.0 102.0–225.0 112.0–227.0
HbA1c (%)
 Median (IQR) 4.9 (0.6) a 7.2 (1.7) b 7.5 (2.1) b < 0.001HS, 1
 Range (min–max) 4.1–5.7 6.0–11.2 6.0–11.8
T.C (mg/dl)
 Median (IQR) 176.0 (17.0) a 195.0 (22.0) b 198.0 (24.0) b < 0.001HS, 1
 Range (min–max) 143.0–204.0 153.0–232.0 153.0–240.0
Triglycerides (mg/dl)
 Median (IQR) 156.0 (24.0) a 160.0 (27.0) a 166.0 (36.0) b < 0.001HS, 1
 Range (min–max) 126.0–206.0 126.0–210.0 142.0–210.0
LDL (mg/dl)
 Median (IQR) 108.6 (16.9) a 127.2 (22.9) b 125.6 (27.2) b < 0.001HS, 1
 Range (min–max) 68.6–146.8 85.4–165.2 79.6–165.8
HDL (mg/dl)
 Median (IQR) 36.0 (9.0) a 33.0 (7.0) b 38.0 (8.0) b < 0.001HS, 1
 Range (min–max) 22.0–48.0 22.0–47.0 23.0–48.0
  1. DM diabetes mellitus, VCs vascular complications, % percent within group, IQR interquartile range
  2. 1Kruskal-Wallis test; 2 Pearson chi Square test; 3 Mann-Whitney test
  3. (a, b, c ): Each subscript letter denotes the groups whose parameter do not differ significantly from each other using multiple pairwise comparisons adjusted by Bonferroni post hoc test at the level of 0.05
  4. NS non-significant at P value ≥ 0.05; S significant at P value < 0.05; HS highly significant at P value < 0.01