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Table 2 Comparisons of genotype distribution and allele frequencies of PAI-1 gene polymorphism between healthy control, DM without vascular complications, and DM with vascular complications groups

From: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene polymorphism as a risk factor for vascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus

  Control (n = 181)
n(%)
DM without VCs (n = 117)
n(%)
DM with VCs (n = 83)
n(%)
P valuea DM without VCS vs. control DM with VCs vs. control DM with VCs vs. DM without VCs
OR (95% CI) P valuea OR (95% CI) P valuea OR (95% CI) P valuea
PAI-1 genotypes
5G/5G 53 (29.3) 29 (24.8) 8 (9.6)   Ref Ref Ref
4G/5G 69 (38.1) 48 (41.0) 47 (56.6) 0.007 HS 1.27 (0.71–2.28) 0.420NS 4.51 (1.97–10.36) < 0.001HS 3.55 (1.47–8.56) 0.004HS
4G/4G 59 (32.6) 40 (34.2) 28 (33.7)   1.24 (0.68–2.27) 0.487 NS 3.14 (1.32–7.50) 0.008 HS 2.54 (1.01–6.37) 0.044 S
Dominant model
5G/5G 53 (29.3) 29 (24.8) 8 (9.6)   Ref Ref Ref
4G/4G+ 4G/5G 128 (70.7) 88 (75.2) 75 (90.4) 0.002 HS 1.26 (0.74–2.13) 0.396 NS 3.88 (1.75–8.61) < 0.001 HS 3.09 (1.33–7.16) 0.007 HS
Recessive model
5G/5G + 4G/5G 122 (67.4) 77 (65.8) 55 (66.3) 0.957 NS Ref Ref Ref
4G/4G 59 (32.6) 40 (34.2) 28 (33.7)   1.07 (0.66–1.76) 0.776 NS 1.05 (0.61–1.83) 0.855NS 0.98 (0.54–1.78) 0.947 NS
Alleles
5G 175 (48.3) 106 (45.3) 63 (38.0)   Ref Ref Ref
4G 187 (51.7) 128 (54.7) 103(62.0) 0.084 NS 1.13 (0.81–1.57) 0.467 NS 1.53 (1.05–2.23) 0.026 S 1.35 (0.90–2.03) 0.143 NS
  1. DM diabetes mellitus, VCs vascular complications, OR (95% CI) odd ratio with 95% confidence interval, % percent of genotype or allele within group
  2. aPearson Chi-square test; NS non-significant at P value ≥ 0.05; S significant at P value < 0.05; HS highly significant at P value < 0.01