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Table 3 Comparison between PAI-1 genotypes regarding demographic and clinical data in diabetes without vascular complication group

From: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene polymorphism as a risk factor for vascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus

Parameters PAI-1 genotypes in DM without VCs P value
5G/5G (n = 29) 4G/5G (n = 48) 4G/4G (n = 40)
Age (years) 48.0 (12.0) 47.0 (10.5) 48.0 (10.0) 0.890 NS, 1
Gender [n (%)]     0.498 NS, 2
Male 22 (75.9) 36 (75.0) 26 (65.0)  
Female 7 (24.1) 12 (25.0) 14 (35.0)  
Smoking [n (%)]     0.002 HS, 2
No 25 (86.2) 28 (58.3) 35 (87.5)  
Yes 4 (13.8) a 20 (41.7) b 5 (12.5) a  
Dyslipidemia [n (%)]     0.017 HS, 3
Absent 4 (13.8) 1 (2.1) 0 (0.0)  
Present 25 (86.2) a 47 (97.9) a, b 40 (100.0) b  
Hypertension [n (%)]     < 0.001 HS, 3
Absent 12 (41.4) 2 (4.2) 4(10.0)  
Present 17 (58.6) a 46 (95.8) b 36 (90.0) b  
Duration of DM (years) 3.20 (1.65) 3.80 (2.10) 3.6 (2.03) 0.221 NS
PAI-1 27.0 (7.50)a 55.0 (10.75)b 41.5 (9.0)c < 0.001 HS, 1
TAFI 31.0 (13.50)a 78.5 (24.0)b 50.0 (21.50)c < 0.001 HS, 1
d-dimer (mg/dl) 0.60 (0.25)a 2.80 (1.25)b 1.25 (1.08)c < 0.001 HS, 1
BMI (Kg/m3) 27.4 (2.80)a 31.45 (6.38)b 27.80 (3.73)a < 0.001 HS, 1
SBP (mmHg) 120.0 (8.0)a 155.0 (40.0)b 120.0 (29.5)c < 0.001 HS, 1
DBP (mmHg) 80.0 (10.5)a 95.0 (21.0)b 86.0 (11.5)a < 0.001 HS, 1
FBS (mg/dl) 117.0 (23.0)a 132.0 (23.0)b 124.50 (28.25)a, b < 0.001 HS, 1
2Hr BS (mg/dl) 132.0 (21.50)a 155.5 (33.25)b 140.0 (32.75)a, b 0.003 HS
HbA1c (%) 6.7 (0.75)a 7.7 (2.55)b 7.15 (1.15)a, b < 0.001 HS, 1
T.C (mg/dl) 186.0 (17.5)a 200.0 (23.25)b 194.5 (25.25)b 0.002 HS, 1
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 152.0 (46.5)a 156.0 (22.5)a, b 165.0 (37.25)b 0.013 S, 1
LDL (mg/dl) (mean ± SD) 118.91 ± 12.49a 130.78 ± 18.46b 128.80 ± 17.71b 0.011 S, 4
HDL (mg/dl) 34.0 (8.0) 32.0 (8.5) 33.0 (5.75) 0.528 NS, 1
  1. Values are expressed as median (inter quartile range (IQR)) unless otherwise indicated; % percent within genotype subgroup
  2. 1Kruskal-Wallis test; 2 Pearson Chi-square test; and 3 Fisher’s Exact test, adjusted for multiple pairwise comparisons by Bonferroni post hoc test; 4 ANOVA test, adjusted for multiple comparisons by Tukey HSD post hoc test
  3. (a, b, c): Each subscript letter denotes the groups whose parameter do not differ significantly from each other after adjustment for multiple comparisons by post hoc test at the level of 0.05
  4. NS non-significant at P value ≥ 0.05; S significant at P value < 0.05; HS highly significant at P value < 0.01