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Table 4 Comparison between the genotypes of PAI-1 regarding demographic and clinical data in diabetes with vascular complication group

From: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene polymorphism as a risk factor for vascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus

Parameters PAI-1 genotypes in DM with VCs P value
5G/5G (n = 8) 4G/5G (n = 47) 4G/4G (n = 28)
Age (years) (mean ± SD) 48.00 ± 5.76 49.06 ± 6.89 48.43 ± 5.95 0.867NS, 1
Gender [n (%)]     0.933 NS, 2
Male 6 (75.0) 35 (74.5) 20 (71.4)  
Female 2 (25.0) 12 (25.5) 8 (28.6)  
Smoking [n (%)]     < 0.001 HS,2
No 7 (87.5) 25 (53.2) 27 (96.4)  
Yes 1 (12.5) a, b 22 (46.8) b 1 (3.6) a  
Dyslipidemia [n (%)]     0.096 NS, 2
Absent 1 (12.5) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
Present 7 (87.5) 47 (100.0) 28 (100.0)  
Hypertension [n (%)]     0.385 NS, 2
Absent 2 (25.0) 5 (10.6) 4 (14.3)  
Present 6 (75.0) 42 (89.4) 24 (85.7)  
Duration of DM (years) 4.0 (2.9) 3.8 (3.8) 3.60 (2.23) 0.729 NS, 3
PAI-1 26.5 (6.25)a 65.0 (10.0)b 48.5 (11)c < 0.001 HS, 3
TAFI 46.5 (14.5)a 115.0 (42.0)b 74 (24)a < 0.001 HS, 3
d-dimer (mg/dl) 0.70 (0.20)a 2.90 (0.80)b 1.40 (0.98)c < 0.001 HS, 3
BMI (kg/m3) 27.20 (2.15)a,b 31.20 (5.40)a 26.70 (2.65)b < 0.001 HS, 3
SBP (mmHg) 120.0 (32.50)a, b 155.0 (40.0)a 120 (17.0)b 0.001 HS, 3
DBP (mmHg) 80 (20.50)a,b 94 (26.00)a 82 (10.0) b 0.004 HS, 3
FBS (mg/dl) 122.5 (17.25)a, b 145 (47)a 121.50 (21.25)b 0.027 S, 3
2Hr BS (mg/dl) 146.0 (18.5) 167.0 (55.0) 148.50 (34.75) 0.078 NS, 3
HbA1c (%) 7.0 (1.30) 8.0 (2.40) 7.20 (0.98) 0.055 NS, 3
T. C (mg/dl) 187.5 (21.75)a 198.0 (22.0)b 197.50 (35.00)a, b 0.024 S, 3
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 151.5 (12.5)a 170.0 (35.0)b 166.0 (29.25)b < 0.001 HS, 3
LDL (mg/dl) (mean ± SD) 116.83 ± 8.55 130.11 ± 18.38 121.93 ± 21.33 0.084 NS, 1
HDL (mg/dl) (mean ± SD) 36.25 ± 5.18 37.09 ± 5.42 39.57 ± 4.03 0.077 NS, 1
  1. Values are expressed as median (IQR) unless otherwise indicated; % percent within genotype subgroup
  2. 1ANOVA test, adjusted for multiple pairwise comparisons by Tukey HSD post hoc test, 2 Fisher’s exact test, and 3 Kruskal-Wallis test, adjusted for multiple comparisons by Bonferroni post hoc test.
  3. (a, b, c): Each subscript letter denotes the groups whose parameter do not differ significantly from each other after adjustment for multiple comparisons by post hoc test at the level of 0.05
  4. NS non-significant at P value ≥ 0.05; S significant at P value < 0.05; HS highly significant at P value < 0.01