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Table 1 Comparison of Hsp27 with other sHsps

From: Therapeutic potential of Hsp27 in neurological diseases

  Phosphorylation sites Stress inducibility Metal ion interaction α-Synuclein formation Amyloid aggregation and cytotoxicity Metal ion-induced aggregation of amyloid and α-synuclein and oxidative stress Functions
Hsp27 (HSPB1) Human—MK2-, MK3-, and MK5-mediated phosphorylation at S15, S78, and S82 residues.
Chinese hamster—S15, S90 residues.
Murine Hsp25 (HSPB1)—phosphorylation by protein kinase C and cAMP-dependent kinase at S15 and S86 residues.
Positive Expression is induced by Cu2+and also by Cd2+. Prevent Inhibit aggregation but does not have a role in preventing cytotoxicity Protective role in Cu2+- induced aggregation and oxidative stress Modulates p53 pathway by inhibiting cellular senescence and also prevents apoptosis by interfering both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways. It also possesses chaperone activity and also prevents the cell death pathway triggered by a rise in levels of ROS.
Hsp20 (HSPB6) Protein kinase A (PKA)/protein kinase G (PKG) phosphorylation at S16 residue. Negative Prevent Prevent aggregation and attenuate cytotoxicity Phosphorylation at S16 residue leads to antiapoptotic function where it inhibits mitochondria-mediated apoptosis [30]. It also possesses chaperone activity.
α-Crystallin α-A crystallin (HSPB4)—cAMP-dependent kinase-mediated phosphorylation at S122 and 3 other phosphorylation sites between 122 and 178 residues.
α-B crystallin (HSPB5)—phosphorylation at S19 residue which is age-dependent, S45 residue during mitosis and in heat stress conditions at S59 residue.
α-A crystallin—negative
α-B crystallin—positive
α-A crystallin expression is induced by Cu2+ and Zn2+.
α-B crystallin expression is induced by Cu2+ and also by Cd2+ and Zn2+.
Prevent Inhibit aggregation and prevent cytotoxicity Protective role in Cu2+-induced aggregation and oxidative stress Prevent TNFα-mediated apoptosis, mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, and cytochrome c interaction in apoptosis. It also modulates P53 pathway involving senescence and chaperone activity.
Hsp22 (HSPB8) cAMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation at S24 and S57 residues. Positive based on cell type Prevent and are more potent in nature Inhibit aggregation and cytotoxicity Major function is chaperone activity. It is actively involved in macroautophagy.
  1. A detailed account of the different interactions and functions among the various sHsps