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Table 2 Most prevalent gestational diabetes mellitus genes across countries, ethnicity, and race in the world

From: Update on the genetic and epigenetic etiology of gestational diabetes mellitus: a review

GeneCountries/ethnicity/raceVariantsLevel of significanceReferences
TCF7L2Mexicansrs7901695P = 2.16 × 10−6[93]
rs7901696P < 0.05[93]
rs7901697P < 0.05[93]
rs7901698P < 0.05[93]
Asiansrs7903146P = 0.001[94]
Scandinaviansrs7903146P < 0.05[95]
Africansrs7903146P = 7.288 × 10−13[96]
Hispanic/Latinosrs7903146P < 0.05[97]
Caucasians/Danishrs7903146P = 0.00017[98]
Caucasianrs4506565P < 0.001[99]
KCNQ1Mexicansrs2237892P = 1.98 × 10−5[93]
rs163184P < 0.05[93]
rs2237897P < 0.05[93]
Koreansrs2074196P = 0.039[100]
rs2237892P < 0.05[100]
East Asiansrs2074196P = 0.039[100]
rs2237892P < 0.05[100]
Pakistanrs2237895P < 0.05[101]
MTNR1BMexicansrs1387153P = 0.05358[93]
Asiansrs10830963P < 0.001[94]
Caucasiansrs10830963P < 0.001[94]
Koreansrs10830962P = 2.49 × 10−13[102]
Danishrs10830963P < 0.05[103]
rs1387153P < 0.05[103]
Saudi Arabiansrs1387153P < 0.05[104]
rs10830963P < 0.05[104]
PPARGAsiansrs1801282P = 0.011[94]
Caucasiansrs1801282P < 0.05[99]
rs3856806P < 0.05[99]
Caucasians/Danishrs1801282P < 0.05[98]
CDKAL1Koreansrs7754840P = 2.49 × 10−13[102]
Caucasiansrs7756992P < 0.05[99]
Caucasian/Danishrs7756992P = 0.00017[98]
Iraniansrs7754840P < 0.001[105]
IRS1ScandinaviansIRS1 Arg972P < 0.05[106]
AmericansArg972P < 0.05[107]
Saudi Arabiansrs1801278P = 0.01[108]
Austro-Hungariansrs7578326P < 0.05[109]
HMGA2Africansrs138066904P = 2.516 × 10−9[96]
Africa Americansrs343092P < 0.05[96]
Europeansrs2258238P < 0.05[96]
IGF2BP2Koreansrs4402960P < 0.001[110]
Caucasians/Danishrs4402960P < 0.001[111]
Chinesers4402960P < 0.001[112]
GCKRMalaysiansrs780094P < 0.05[113]
American Caucasiansrs780094P < 0.05[114]
Braziliansrs780094P < 0.05[115]
FGF21IraniansOver expression of mRNAP < 0.001[116]
ChineseOver expression of mRNAP < 0.001[117]
AustraliansOver expression of mRNAP < 0.001[118]