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Table 2 Cardiovascular autonomic tests of the study population

From: Angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion (I/D) gene polymorphism in Iraqi type 2 diabetic patients: association with the risk of cardiac autonomic neuropathy

TestDM n = 142Controls n = 100p value
HR response (E:I ratio)Abnormal71 (50%)4 (4%)< 0.001‡
Normal71 (50%)96 (96%)
HR response (30:15 ratio)Abnormal60 (42.25%)1 (1%)< 0.001‡
Normal82 (55.75%)99 (99%)
BP response to standingAbnormal35 (24.65%)0 (0%)< 0.001‡
Normal107 (75.35%)100 (100%)
BP response to sustained handgripAbnormal21 (14.79%)0 (0%)< 0.001‡
Normal121 (85.21%)100 (100%)
  1. DM diabetes mellitus, HR heart rate, E:I expiration:inspiration, BP blood pressure, ‡ chi-square