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Table 1 Examples of AD treating agents, their mechanism of treatment, and their current status

From: Identification of the most potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from plants for possible treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: a computational approach

Hypothesis Treating agents Mechanism of available treatments Current status Remarks References
Amyloid cascade hypothesis Plasma exchange with albumin 1 immunoglobulin Exchange of plasma to remove the amyloid Phase-III clinical trial Ongoing research [8, 9]
ALZT-OP1a + ALZT-OP1b Alleviation of amyloid plaque related neuroinflammation Phase-III clinical trial Ongoing research
Elenbecestat Removal of amyloid by inhibiting Beta-secretase 1 Phase-III clinical trial Ongoing research
Solanezumab Monoclonal antibodies targeting amyloid plaque Failed Lack of efficacy
Verubecestat Removal of amyloid by inhibiting Beta-secretase 1 Failed Lack of efficacy
Lanabecestat Removal of amyloid by inhibiting Beta-secretase 1 Failed Lack of efficacy
CAD106 Vaccine-based therapy Phase-II clinical trial Ongoing research
CNP520 Inhibition of Beta-secretase 1 Phase-II clinical trial Ongoing research
Crenezumab Monoclonal antibody targeting amyloid plaque Ongoing investigation Ongoing research
Neflamapimod Inhibition of inflammatory protein p38α MAPK Ongoing investigation Ongoing research
Aducanumab Monoclonal antibody targeting amyloid plaque Phase-III clinical trial Ongoing research
Oxidative stress hypothesis Supplementation of Vitamin C and Vitamin E Antioxidant to neutralize the ROS Current investigational treatment Ongoing study [10, 11]
Selenium Antioxidant to neutralize the ROS Ongoing investigation Ongoing study
Curcumin Antioxidant to neutralize the ROS Current investigational treatment Ongoing study
Ginko biloba Antioxidant to neutralize the ROS Current treatment Most effective among the available treatments
Ebenone Antioxidant to neutralize the ROS Ongoing investigation Ongoing study
Estrogen Antioxidant to neutralize the ROS Ongoing investigation Ongoing study
Colostrinin Antioxidant to neutralize the ROS Ongoing investigation Ongoing study
Cholinergic hypothesis Tacrine Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase Current treatment Approved by FDA [12]
Donepezil Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase Current treatment Approved by FDA
Galantamine Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase Current treatment Approved by FDA
Rivastigmine Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase Current treatment Approved by FDA
  1. ROS reactive oxygen species, FDA Food and Drug Administration