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Table 2 Socio-demographic characteristics, laboratory investigations, and ultrasound finding among patients of the studied groups

From: Long non-coding RNA HOTAIR and HOTTIP as potential biomarkers for hepatitis C virus genotype 4-induced hepatocellular carcinoma

 Control
n = 25
Group I
(CLD without HCC) N = 50
Group II
(CLD with HCC)
n = 25
Subgroup Ia
(CLD without cirrhosis)
n = 25
Subgroup Ib
(CLD with cirrhosis)
n = 25
Age47.1 ± 8.547.7 ± 9.958.9 ± 9.3aa, bb56.3 ± 7.8aa, bb
Sex
Female/male
2(08.0%)/23(92.0%)15(60.0%)/10(40.0%)aa12(48.0%)/13(52.0%)aa6(24.0%)/19(76%)bb, cc
US findingCirrhosis0(0.0%)0(0.0%)25(100.0%)7(28.0%)cc
Splenomegaly0(0.0%)3(12.0%)19(76.0%)bb22(88.0%)bb,c
Ascites0(0.0%)0(0.0%)21(84.0%)25(100.0%)c
ALT (umol/dl)27.5 (15.5–31.8)40.0 (17.0–51.0)a46.5 (24.3–84.8)a55.5 (34.5–82.5)aa, bb
AST (umol/dl)32.0 (24.3–38.0)38.0 (28.0–46.0)44.5 (32.0–69.5)aa80.0 (37.3–111.0)aa, bb, c
AFP (ng/ml)2.3 (1.5–3.1)2.2 (1.4–4.5)8.8 (6.5–16.8)aa, bb224.0 (44.3–597.5)aa, bb, cc
Albumin (umol/dl)4.1 ± 0.54.1 ± 0.53.1 ± 1.1aa, bb2.6 ± 0.7aa, bb, c
Total bilirubin (umol/dl)0.9 (0.8–1.1)0.6 (0.4–0.9)aa1.4 (0.7–3.6)a, bb1.9 (1.3–5.0)aa, bb, c
Direct bilirubin (umol/dl)0.3 (0.2–0.4)0.2 (0.1–0.3)a0.6 (0.2–1.9)a, bb1.1 (0.4–2.5)aa, bb
ALP (IU/L)74.3 ± 19.084.9 ± 30.2103.2 ± 35.6aa, b202.4 ± 88.0aa, bb, cc
PT (s)12.4 (11.4–12.8)15.4 (13.2–18.8)aa17.8 (15.0–20.4)aa16.3 (14.5–19.0)aa
PC (%)89.6 (78.2–100.0)64.0 (55.0–80.0)aa52.5 (44.0–73.8)aa71.5 (55.0–75.3)aa
INR (s)1.1 (1.0–1.1)1.5 (1.0–1.6)aa1.5 (1.2–1.8)aa1.4 (1.2–1.5)aa
HB (g/dl)12.6 ± 1.412.4 ± 1.610.4 ± 2.2aa, bb11.2 ± 2.4a, b
WBCs (/mm3)6.2 ± 2.37.0 ± 2.87.3 ± 2.67.8 ± 3.1
Platelets (/mm3)241.5 ± 56.5228.2 ± 67.3112.9 ± 52.9aa, bb136.1 ± 82.2aa, bb
APRI score0.34 ± 0.130.61 ± 0.171.69 ± 0.312.1 ± 1.3
  1. Age, albumin, alkaline phosphates (ALP), hemoglobin (HB), white blood cells (WBCs) and platelets are represented as mean ± SD; the data were analyzed by t test. But sex and ultrasound (U/S) findings are represented as frequency and percent; the data were analyzed by X2 test. While alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, prothrombin time (PT), prothrombin concentration (PC) and international normalized ratio (INR) are represented as median and interquartile range (25%–75%); the data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test
  2. p value bearing (b) initial is significantly different comparing with HCV group
  3. p value bearing (c) initial is significantly different comparing with cirrhotic group
  4. p value bearing (#) initial is significantly different comparing with CLD group
  5. 1 initial p value <0.05 is significant, 2 initial p value <0.01 is highly significant