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Table 1 Therapeutic compounds/extracts tested in Drosophila PINK1/Parkin models

From: Deconstructing the molecular genetics behind the PINK1/Parkin axis in Parkinson’s disease using Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism

Therapeutic compound/extract/protein Drosophila model (gene knockdown/knockout) Phenotype/s modified Mechanism of action References
Polyphenols: Propyl gallate, Epigallocathecin parkin Improved lifespan and attenuated climbing defects Inhibits ROS accumulation and prevents iron induced neurotoxicity [158, 160]
Zinc chloride parkin Improved lifespan and locomotor ability Impedes ROS-induced apoptosis [165]
Nicotine parkin Improved lifespan, viability, locomotor ability and reduced olfactory deficits Promotes activity of complex I and reduces the production of ROS via the ETS [168, 179]
Minocycline parkin Improved lifespan and locomotor ability Protects against iron and paraquat induced toxicity and scavenges ROS [166]
Folic acid parkin Improved lifespan and locomotor ability Downregulates p53, PGC1α and ATP levels (promotes mitochondrial biogenesis and ROS clearance) [163]
Sulforaphane parkin Suppressed dopaminergic neuron loss Stimulates Nrf2 induced transcription of antioxidant enzymes [161, 162]
Resveratrol /Grape skin extract (GSE) pink1 Improved lifespan, wing posture, locomotor ability and larval mitochondrial morphology Upregulates p62 receptor expression and mitophagy [170]
Ginseng protein pink1 Improved wing posture, locomotor ability and suppressed dopaminergic neuron loss Triggers unfolded protein response (promotes mitochondrial biogenesis) and protects against rotenone/paraquat induced toxicity [171]
Mucuna pruriens pink1 Improved SOD and GSH levels Increases clearance of ROS by upregulating antioxidant enzyme activity [167]
Recombinant SOD1 + Vitamin E pink1 Reduced ommatidial and retinal degeneration and suppressed dopaminergic neuron loss Protects against ROS-induced cell death (scavenges ROS) [180]
Vitamin K2 pink1 Improved locomotor ability and larval mitochondrial morphology Acts as an ETS carrier analogous to ubiquinone and thereby promotes oxidative phosphorylation [169]