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Table 1 List of CSF, pathology and plasma biomarkers of NPH

From: Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and genetic factors associated with normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer’s disease: a narrative review

Biomarker Relation References
Aβ 42, Aβ 38, and Aβ 40 sAPPa, sAPPb, p-tau, and total-tau protein Decreased in NPH patients compared to healthy controls and non-NPH patients [10,11,12,13,14,15]
Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio Decreased only in AD, while it is within the normal range in NPH and vascular dementia [21]
NFL Increased in NPH compared to healthy controls [24,25,26,27]
NFL, Aβ42, t-tau, and NG Decreased in NPH patients compared to subcortical ischemic vascular disease [29]
MBP Increased in NPH, neurovascular diseases, MS, and other neurometabolic disorders [26, 31, 32]
LRG Increased in NPH, compared to healthy controls/increased in PDD and PSP compared to NPH and AD patients [34, 35]
TGF-β1 and IL-1β Decreased in NPH patients compared to AD [41, 42]
IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 (anti-inflammatory cytokine) Increased in NPH,AD and PD [44, 45]
MCP-1 Increased in NPH compared to healthy controls [10, 48]
AQ4 Decreased in NPH compared to healthy controls [52]
PTPRQ Increased in NPH compared to AD [53]
Glycerate, serine, and 2-hydroxybutyrate Lower level of glycerate and higher levels of N-acetylneuraminate, serine, and 2-hydroxybutyrate in NPH than AD [54]