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Table 3 Association and pathway studies of nicotine/smoking addiction

From: Association of OPRM1 with addiction: a review on drug, alcohol and smoking addiction in worldwide population

Population/ethnicity Nicotine-dependent cases Genes Publication
OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
European 288    [22]
Chinese 284    [52]
Caucasian 688    [22]
Spanish 763    [40]
Caucasian + Asian 3313    [49]
Caucasian 179    [44]
Caucasian 62    [50]
UK 633    [53]
Netherland 1399    [51]
Pennsylvania 44    [41]
Caucasian + Asian     [2]
  1. This table explains the association and pathway studies of nicotine/smoking addiction in different populations OPRM1, OPRK1 and OPRD1 in different ethnic groups