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Table 6 Demographic studies in different populations

From: Association of OPRM1 with addiction: a review on drug, alcohol and smoking addiction in worldwide population

S. No Subject categorized No. of participants Age Age at addiction Gender Ethnicity Marital status Family history
Male Female M UM W D  
1 A118A 23–45 19–25 57 31      6.56
A118G 20–28 12–22 12 3      17.2
2 15–58 26 15–58   23 33       
19–46 39 19–46   3 6       
3 Control   36.5 years    52%       
Heroin   45.6 years    23%       
4 Control   31.8 years   54.3%        
Substance dependence   37.9 years   71.2%        
5 Control 2324    78%        
Opioid 2845    56%        
6    Below 20–12
20–29: 144
30–39: 54
40–49: 32
Above 50: 8
    Ajam-17
Arab-56
Bloush-18
Mixed-48
None-10
89 146 1 14 142
7 Current smoker   Mean age
56.4 ± 14.8
         
Ex-smoker   Mean age
68.5 ± 8.3
         
8 Male 39.9 ± 14.7       158 108   3  
Female 36.7 ± 14.8       148 176   177  
Male 42.3 ± 12.7       43 22 2  
Female 39.6 ± 12.7       58 41 4 3  
9 OH dependent   19.6%   94.6%        
Non-alcohol dependent   41.4%   57.1%        
S. No Subject categorized Smoking history Alcohol Education Disease history/cause of death/stress related Employment References
P HS S Dip U Doc
1 A118A 12.5   50 28.1    12.5 9.3    [54]
A118G 20.0   38.7 22.5    16.1 22.5    
2 15–58          Alcohol intoxication (n 2), electric shock (n 2), pulmonary emboli (n 1), myocardial infarct (n 17), pneumonia (n 2), sudden death (n 2)   [37]
19–46          Heroin overdose   
3 Control            [10]
Heroin            
4 Control            [15]
Substance dependence            
5 Control            [25]
Opioid            
6   Current smoker—239
Ex-smoker—11
Never smoke—0
  135 71   30     Employed: 82
Unemployed: 116
Student: 31
Master degree: 2
Bachelor degree: 11
[33]
7 Current smoker Mean age: 23.6 ± 8.0Cigarette consume (per day)—22.3 ± 11.9
Smoking years—32.9 ± 14.3
  35.5 64.5      Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular—58.7
Respiratory disease—27.5
Diabetes mellitus—13.8
  [52]
Ex-smoker Mean age: 28.3 ± 10.8
Cigarette consume (per day)—19.9 ± 9.9
Smoking years -31.7 ± 12.3
  34.9 65.1      Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular—62.3
Respiratory disease—30.8
Diabetes mellitus—6.8
  
8 Male    44   136   91   Stress at work: 5.85 ± 2.54
Life stress: 4.94 ± 2.17
OH intake g/d: 7.50 ± 8.78
AUD (AUDIT ≥ 8): 10.6
  [40]
Female    63   169   123   Stress at work: 5.39 ± 2.65
Life stress: 5.17 ± 2.29
OH intake g/d:
4.75 ± 6.50
AUD (AUDIT ≥ 8): 7.3
  
Male    21   30   17   Stress at work: 6.30 ± 2.62
Life stress: 5.13 ± 2.21
Cigrette intake n/d: 12.9 ± 10.3
Fragestrom score: 3.38 ± 2.96
  
Female    30   46   31   Stress at work: 5.90 ± 2.93
Life stress: 6.05 ± 2.44
Cigrette intake n/d: 11.2 ± 8.7
Fragestrom score: 2.89 ± 2.09
  
9 OH dependent   Age of onset of alcohol problems—35
First hospitalization for alcohol problems (years)— 42.5
Average drinking days per month—16.3
Drinks per drinking day—12.4
Family history of alcohol problems—47.3
History of severe alcohol withdrawal – 22.3
8.7%    [47]
Non-alcohol dependent   N/A N/A    
  1. This table explains the demographic studies in different populations
  2. M: married; UM: unmarried; W: widow; D: divorced; P: primary; S: secondary; HS: high school; Dip: diploma; U: university; Doc: doctorate; Fam: family; Frd: friends; Eco: economic