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Table 2 Studies methodology

From: Effect of virtual reality on motor coordination in children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Study,

Year

Design

Intervention

Session duration and frequency

VR equipment

VR type

Control

Session frequency and duration

Length

Follow-up

Chen et al. [32]

2012

Taiwan

RCT

VR

VR: 40 min/day

3d/w

ElotonSimCycle Virtual Cycling System

Commercially available

General physical activity at home

–-

12w

 

Ramstrand and Lygnegåd [33]

2012

Sweden

Crossover

RCT

VR

30 min. 5d/w

Wii Nintendo

Commercially available

No intervention

5w

Rostami et al. [34]

2012

Iran

SB-RCT

VR + CT

VR: 90 min. 3d/w

CT: 30 min. 2d/w

E-Link Evaluation and Exercise System

Engineer-build

CT

30 min. 2d/w

4w

3 m

CIMT + CT

CIMT: 90 min. 3d/w

CT: 30 min. 2d/w

VR + CIMT + CT

VR: 90 min. 3d/w

CIMT: 90 min. 3d/w

CT: 30 min. 2d/w

Druzibicki et al.* [35]

2013

Poland

RCT

Robotic-assisted gait training

45 min

20 sessions

Lokomat

Engineer-built

Individual exercises

20 sessions

4 w

Individual exercises

20 sessions

Chiu et al. [36]

2014 Taiwan

Prospective

SB-RCT

VR + CT

VR: 40 min. 3d/w

CT: –

3d/w

Home-based

Wii Sports Resort

Commercially available

CT

3d/w

6w

12w

Gilliaux et al. [37]

2015

Belgium

SB-RCT

VR + CT

VR: 45 min. 2d/w

CT: 45 min. 3d/w

REA Plan

Engineer-build

CT

45 min. 3d/w

8w

James et al. [38]

2015

Australia

RCT

VR + Standard Care

20–30 min. 6d/w

Internet-connected Computer

Commercially available

Standard Care

20w

Greeco et al. [39]

2015

Brazil

DB-RCT

Gait training with VR combined with

anodal tDCS

20 min 5 s/w

2 w

10 sessions

Kinect program (Xbox 360)

Commercially available

Gait training with VR combined with sham tDCS

20 min. 5 s/w

2 w

10 sessions

3 w

7 w

Zoccolillo et al. [40]

2015

Italy

Crossover

RCT

VR

30 min. 2d/w

Xbox with Kinect device

Commercially available

CT

30 min. 2d/w

8w

Cho et al. [41]

2016

Korea

RCT

VR Treadmill training

30 min. 3d/w

Wii Nintendo

Commercially available

Treadmill training

30 min. 3d/w

8w

General P.T

30 min. 3d/w

General P.T

30 min. 3d/w

Acar et al. [42]

2016

Turkey

RCT

VR + NDT

VR: 15 min. 2d/w

CT: 30 min. 2d/w

Wii Nintendo

Commercially available

CT

45 min. 2d/w

6w

Bedair et al. [44]

2016

Egypt

RCT

VR + CT

VR: 30 min. 3d/w

CT: 60 min. 3d/w

Xbox

Commercially available

CT

60 min

4 m

Ürgen et al. [43]

2016

Turkey

RCT

VR

45 min. 2d/w

Nintendo Wii-Fit

Commercially available

Routine P.T

2d/ w

9 W

Routine P.T

2d/ w

Uysal and Baltaci [45]

2016

Turkey

SB-RCT

VR

30 min. 2d/w

Wii Nintendo

Commercially available

Routine P.T

45 min. 2d/w

12w

Routine P.T

45 min. 2d/w

Tarakci et al. [34]

2016

Turkey

RCT

VR

20 min. 2d/w

Wii-Fit

Gaming console

Commercially available

NDT + conventional balance training

20 min. 2d/w

12w

30 min. 2d/w

Wallard et al. [46]

2017

France

RCT

Robotic-assisted gait training

40 min. 5 s/w

Lokomat®Pediatric

Engineer-built

P.T

40 min daily

4 w

Lazzari et al. [47]

2017

Brazil

DB-RCT

VR combined with active tDCs

20 min. 5d/w

Xbox 360 console with the kinetic movement sensor

Commercially available

VR combined with sham tDCs

20 min. 5d/w

2w

1 month

Gatica Rojas et al.* [48]

2017

Chile

Matched Pairs

RCT

VR

30 min. 3d/w

Wii-Fit Plus with Nitnendo Wii-Balance Board

Commercially available

Standard P.T

40 min. 3d/w

6w

8th w

10th w

Sajan et al. [49]

2017

India

Pilot, Parallel group RCT

VR + Rehab

VR: 45 min. 6d/w

CT: 5 h 15 min. 6d/w

Wii Nintendo

Commercially available

Rehab

6 h. 6d/w

3w

  1. RCT randomized controlled trial, SB-RCT single-blinded randomized controlled trial, VR virtual reality, CT conventional therapy which includes physiotherapy and occupational therapy, min minutes, d day, w weeks, CIMT constraint-induced movement therapy, DB-RCT double-blinded randomized controlled trial, tDCS transcranial direct current stimulation, P.T. physiotherapy, Rehab rehabilitation, h hour
  2. *Included by contact the authors