The presence of small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMCs) in a karyotype leads to diagnostic questions because the resulting extra material may cause abnormal development depending on the origin of the duplication/triplication. Because SMCs are so small, their origin cannot be determined by conventional cytogenetic techniques, and new molecular cytogenetic methods are necessary. Here, we applied a target approach to chromosome rearrangement analysis by isolating a chromosome of interest via microdissection and using it in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as a probe in combination with whole-chromosome painting probes. This approach allows to identify origins of both the euchromatin and repeat-rich regions of a marker.
We report a case of an adult male with congenital atresia of the rectum and anus, anotia, and atresia of the external auditory canal along with hearing loss. Karyotyping and FISH analysis with whole-chromosome painting probes of acrocentric chromosomes and the constructed microdissection library of the marker chromosome reliably identified an additional chromosome in some metaphases: mos 47,XY,+idic(22)(q11.2)/46,XY .
We propose to use whole-chromosome libraries and microdissected chromosomes in FISH to identify SMCs enriched with repeated sequences. We show that the methodology is successful in identifying the composition of a satellited marker chromosome.